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Labarai

tsari
Workpiece → ragewa → wanke ruwa → pickling → wanke ruwa → nutsewa a cikin taimakon plating ƙarfi → bushewa da preheating → zafi tsoma galvanizing → gamawa → sanyaya → passivation → rinsing → bushewa → dubawa
(1) Rage jiki
Za'a iya amfani da ɓangarorin sinadarai ko kayan aikin tsabtace ƙarfe na tushen ruwa don lalata har sai an riga an riga an riga an riga an gama aikin ruwa.
(2) Cin abinci
Ana iya tsintsa shi da H2SO4 15%, thiourea 0.1%, 40 ~ 60 ℃ ko HCl 20%, hexamethylenetetramine 1~3g/L, 20~40℃. Ƙarin mai hana lalata zai iya hana matrix daga lalacewa fiye da lalata kuma ya rage ƙwayar hydrogen na matrix na ƙarfe. Rashin rage ɓacin rai da jiyya na pickling zai haifar da ƙarancin mannewa na rufin, babu suturar zinc ko kwasfa na Layer na zinc.
(3) Juyin nutsewa
Har ila yau, an san shi da wakili na haɗin gwiwa, zai iya ci gaba da aikin aikin kafin yin nutsewa don haɓaka haɗin kai tsakanin plating Layer da substrate. NH4Cl 15% ~ 25%, ZnCl2 2.5%~3.5%, 55~65℃, 5~10min. Domin rage ƙarfin NH4Cl, ana iya ƙara glycerin daidai.
(4) bushewa da dumama
Domin hana workpiece daga deforming saboda kaifi Yunƙurin a zafin jiki a lokacin da nutsewa plating, da kuma cire saura danshi, don hana tutiya fashewa, sakamakon da tutiya ruwa fashewa, da preheating ne kullum 120-180 ° C.
(5) Galvanizing mai zafi
Wajibi ne don sarrafa zafin jiki na maganin zinc, lokacin tsomawa da kuma saurin da aka cire kayan aiki daga maganin zinc. Yanayin zafin jiki ya yi ƙasa da ƙasa, ƙarancin ruwan zinc ba shi da kyau, rufin yana da kauri kuma bai dace ba, yana da sauƙin samar da sagging, kuma yanayin bayyanar ba shi da kyau; yawan zafin jiki yana da girma, ruwa na ruwa na zinc yana da kyau, ruwan zinc yana da sauƙi don rabuwa daga aikin aiki, kuma abin mamaki na sagging da wrinkles yana raguwa. Ƙarfin ƙarfi, murfin bakin ciki, kyakkyawan bayyanar, ingantaccen samar da haɓaka; duk da haka, idan yanayin zafi ya yi yawa, kayan aikin da tukunyar zinc za su yi mummunar lalacewa, kuma za a samar da adadi mai yawa na zinc, wanda zai yi tasiri ga ingancin ƙwayar zinc da kuma cinye adadi mai yawa na zinc. A daidai wannan zafin jiki, lokacin nutsewa yana da tsayi kuma Layer ɗin yana da kauri. Lokacin da ake buƙatar kauri iri ɗaya a yanayin zafi daban-daban, yana ɗaukar lokaci mai tsawo don dumama yawan zafin jiki. Domin hana babban zafin nakasawa na workpiece da kuma rage zinc dross lalacewa ta hanyar baƙin ƙarfe asarar, janar manufacturer rungumi dabi'ar 450 ~ 470 ℃, 0.5 ~ 1.5min. Wasu masana'antu suna amfani da yanayin zafi mai girma don manyan kayan aiki da simintin ƙarfe, amma guje wa kewayon yanayin zafi na ƙarancin ƙarfe. Don inganta haɓakar ruwan zafi na zafi mai zafi mai zafi a ƙananan yanayin zafi, hana sutura daga kasancewa mai kauri sosai, da kuma inganta bayyanar suturar, 0.01% zuwa 0.02% na aluminum mai tsabta ana ƙara sau da yawa. Ya kamata a ƙara aluminum a cikin ƙananan adadin sau da yawa.
(6) gamawa
Ƙare aikin aikin bayan plating shine yafi cire tutiya da tutiya nodules na saman, ko dai ta hanyar girgiza ko hanyoyin hannu.
(7) Ciwon kai
Manufar ita ce inganta juriya ga lalatawar yanayi a farfajiyar aikin aikin, rage ko tsawanta bayyanar tsatsa mai tsabta, da kuma kula da bayyanar da kyau na shafi. Dukkansu suna wucewa da chromate, kamar Na2Cr2O7 80~100g/L, sulfuric acid 3 ~ 4ml/L.
(8) Sanyi
Gabaɗaya ana sanyaya ruwa, amma zafin jiki bai kamata ya yi ƙasa da ƙasa don hana aikin aikin ba, musamman simintin gyare-gyare, daga tsagewa a cikin matrix saboda sanyi da raguwa.
(9) Dubawa
Bayyanar murfin yana da haske, daki-daki, ba tare da sagging ko wrinkles ba. Binciken kauri na iya amfani da ma'aunin kauri na shafi, hanyar tana da sauƙi. Hakanan za'a iya samun kauri daga cikin sutura ta hanyar canza adadin mannewar zinc. Ƙarfin haɗin gwiwa za a iya lankwasa ta hanyar lanƙwasa, kuma samfurin ya kamata a lankwasa a 90-180 °, kuma kada a sami raguwa ko kwasfa na sutura. Hakanan ana iya gwada shi ta hanyar buga guduma mai nauyi.
2. Hot-tsoma galvanized Layer tsari tsari na zafi-tsoma galvanized Layer samuwar Layer tsari ne na samar da baƙin ƙarfe-zinc gami tsakanin baƙin ƙarfe matrix da outermost tsantsa tutiya Layer. Ƙarfe-zinc gami Layer an kafa shi a saman aikin aikin yayin galvanizing mai zafi. A baƙin ƙarfe da kuma tsarki tutiya Layer suna da kyau hade, da kuma tsari za a iya kawai bayyana a matsayin: a lokacin da baƙin ƙarfe workpiece ne immersed a zurfafa tutiya, wani m bayani na tutiya da alpha baƙin ƙarfe (jiki core) da farko kafa a kan dubawa. Wannan kristal ne da aka samu ta hanyar narkar da zarra na zinc a cikin ƙarfen ƙarfe na tushe a cikin ƙasa mai ƙarfi. Abubuwan zarra guda biyu na karfe suna hade, kuma jan hankali tsakanin atom din kadan ne. Don haka, a lokacin da zinc ya kai jikewa a cikin ingantaccen bayani, nau'ikan nau'ikan zarra guda biyu na zinc da baƙin ƙarfe suna yaduwa da juna, kuma atom ɗin zinc waɗanda suka bazu (ko kutsawa) a cikin matrix baƙin ƙarfe suna ƙaura a cikin matrix ɗin matrix, kuma a hankali suna samar da gami tare da ƙari. baƙin ƙarfe, da kuma yaɗuwa Iron da zinc a cikin zuriyar zinc sun zama wani fili mai tsaka-tsaki na FeZn13, wanda ke nutsewa cikin kasan tukunyar galvanizing mai zafi mai zafi, wacce ake kira dattin zinc. Lokacin da aka cire kayan aikin daga maganin nutsewa na zinc, an samar da zaren tutiya mai tsafta a saman, wanda shine crystal hexagonal. Abin da ke cikin ƙarfen sa bai wuce 0.003% ba.
Na uku, aikin karewa na Layer galvanized mai zafi-tsoma Kauri na electro-galvanized Layer yawanci 5-15μm ne, kuma ruwan tsoma galvanized gabaɗaya yana sama da 65μm, ko da ya kai 100μm. Hot-tsoma galvanizing yana da kyau ɗaukar hoto, m shafi kuma babu Organic inclusions. Kamar yadda muka sani, tsarin lalatawar yanayi na zinc ya haɗa da kariyar injina da kariya ta lantarki. A ƙarƙashin yanayin lalatawar yanayi, akwai fina-finai masu kariya na ZnO, Zn (OH) 2 da ainihin zinc carbonate akan saman tudun zinc, wanda zai iya rage lalata zinc zuwa wani ɗan lokaci. Fim ɗin kariya (wanda aka fi sani da tsatsa) ya lalace kuma an kafa sabon fim. Lokacin da Layer zinc ya lalace sosai kuma matrix na baƙin ƙarfe yana cikin haɗari, zinc zai samar da kariya ta lantarki don matrix. Matsakaicin yuwuwar zinc shine -0.76V, kuma madaidaicin yuwuwar ƙarfe shine -0.44V. Lokacin da zinc da baƙin ƙarfe suka zama microbattery, zinc yana narkar da shi azaman anode. An kiyaye shi azaman cathode. Babu shakka, galvanizing mai zafi-tsoma yana da mafi kyawun juriyar lalatawar yanayi zuwa ƙarfe mai tushe fiye da electro-galvanizing.
Na hudu, sarrafa samuwar ash ash da zinc slag yayin galvanizing mai zafi
Zinc ash da zinc dross ba wai kawai yana tasiri sosai ga ingancin tudun nutsewa na zinc ba, har ma yana haifar da murfin ya zama m kuma yana haifar da nodules na zinc. Bugu da ƙari, farashin galvanizing mai zafi-tsoma yana ƙaruwa sosai. Yawanci, amfani da zinc shine 80-120kg da 1 ton workpiece. Idan ash da ɗigon zinc suna da tsanani, amfani da zinc zai kai 140-200kg. Sarrafa sinadarin zinc shine yafi sarrafa zafin jiki da kuma rage datti da iskar oxygen da ake samu ta fuskar ruwan tutiya. Wasu masana'antun cikin gida suna amfani da yashi mai lalacewa, ash na gawayi, da dai sauransu. Ƙasashen waje suna amfani da yumbu ko gilashin ƙwallon ƙafa tare da ƙananan zafin jiki, babban narkewa, ƙananan ƙananan nauyi, kuma babu wani amsa tare da ruwa na zinc, wanda zai iya rage asarar zafi da kuma hana iskar shaka. Irin wannan ƙwallon yana da sauƙi don tura shi ta hanyar aikin aiki, kuma ba ya daɗe da aikin. Tasirin illa. Domin samuwar zunzurutun tutiya a cikin ruwan tutiya, galibi sinadarin zinc-iron ne tare da rashin ruwa mara kyau da aka samu lokacin da abun cikin baƙin ƙarfe ya narkar da shi a cikin ruwan tutiya ya wuce solubility a wannan zafin jiki. Abubuwan da ke cikin zinc a cikin zuriyar zinc na iya kaiwa zuwa 95%, wanda shine galvanizing mai zafi. Makullin tsadar zinc. Ana iya gani daga lanƙwan baƙin ƙarfe a cikin ruwa na zinc cewa adadin baƙin ƙarfe da ke narkewa, wato, adadin asarar ƙarfe, ya bambanta a yanayin zafi daban-daban da lokuta daban-daban. A kusan 500 ° C, asarar baƙin ƙarfe yana ƙaruwa sosai tare da dumama da riƙe lokaci, kusan a cikin dangantaka ta layi. A ƙasa ko sama da kewayon 480~510 ℃, asarar baƙin ƙarfe yana ƙaruwa sannu a hankali tare da lokaci. Saboda haka, mutane suna kiran 480~510 ℃ da m dissolution zone. A cikin wannan kewayon zafin jiki, ruwan zinc zai lalata kayan aikin da tukunyar zinc mafi tsanani. A baƙin ƙarfe hasarar zai ƙara muhimmanci a lokacin da zazzabi ne sama da 560 ℃, da kuma zinc zai destructively etch da baƙin ƙarfe matrix lokacin da zazzabi ne sama da 660 ℃. . Saboda haka, a halin yanzu ana yin plating a cikin yankuna biyu na 450-480 ° C da 520-560 ° C.
5. Sarrafa adadin dattin zinc
Don rage dacewar zinc, wajibi ne a rage abun ciki na baƙin ƙarfe a cikin maganin zinc, wanda shine farawa tare da rage abubuwan da ke haifar da rushewar ƙarfe:
⑴ Plating da zafi kiyayewa ya kamata kauce wa kololuwar yankin narkar da baƙin ƙarfe, wato, kada ku yi aiki a 480 ~ 510 ℃.
⑵ Kamar yadda zai yiwu, kayan tukunyar tukwane yakamata a haɗa su da faranti na ƙarfe tare da carbon da ƙananan abun ciki na silicon. Babban abun ciki na carbon zai hanzarta lalata kwanon ƙarfe ta ruwan zinc, kuma babban abun ciki na silicon kuma zai iya haɓaka lalata baƙin ƙarfe ta ruwan zinc. A halin yanzu, ana amfani da faranti mai inganci na 08F. Abubuwan da ke cikin carbon ɗin sa shine 0.087% (0.05% ~ 0.11%), abun ciki na silicon shine ≤0.03%, kuma yana ɗauke da abubuwa kamar nickel da chromium waɗanda ke hana baƙin ƙarfe lalacewa. Kada ku yi amfani da ƙarfe na carbon na yau da kullun, in ba haka ba amfani da zinc zai zama babba kuma rayuwar tukunyar zinc zata zama gajere. An kuma ba da shawarar yin amfani da silicon carbide don yin tanki mai narkewa na zinc, kodayake yana iya magance asarar ƙarfe, amma tsarin ƙirar ma yana da matsala.
⑶ Cire slag akai-akai. Za a fara ɗaga zafin jiki zuwa sama da iyakar zafin aikin don raba zinc slag daga ruwan zinc, sa'an nan kuma a sauke zuwa ƙasa da zafin jiki, ta yadda zinc slag ya nutse zuwa kasan tanki sannan a ɗauka tare da shi. cokali daya. Ya kamata a ceci sassan da aka yi da su a cikin ruwan zinc cikin lokaci.
⑷Ya zama dole don hana baƙin ƙarfe a cikin wakili na plating daga kawo shi cikin tanki na zinc tare da kayan aiki. Za a samar da fili mai ja-ja-ja-jaja mai ɗauke da ƙarfe a lokacin da aka yi amfani da wakili na plating na wani ɗan lokaci, kuma dole ne a tace shi akai-akai. Yana da kyau a kula da ƙimar pH na wakilin plating a kusa da 5.
⑸ Kasa da 0.01% aluminum a cikin plating bayani zai hanzarta samuwar dross. Adadin da ya dace na aluminum ba kawai zai inganta ruwa na maganin zinc ba kuma yana ƙara haske na rufi, amma kuma yana taimakawa wajen rage zubar da zinc da ƙurar zinc. Ƙananan adadin aluminum da ke iyo a kan ruwa mai ruwa yana da amfani don rage yawan iskar shaka, kuma da yawa yana rinjayar ingancin sutura, haifar da lahani.
⑹ Dumama da dumama yakamata su kasance iri ɗaya don hana fashewa da zafi na gida.

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Lokacin aikawa: Satumba-30-2021